Being ementalski (Switzerland)
The beginning of Swiss cheese making dates back to very ancient times. However, its heyday into big industry only began in the nineteenth century, since the first cheese dairies in the valleys were built. Today, milk production is the economic foundation of the country there. Of the various cheeses made in Switzerland, Emmental is the leader. Today, Emmental cheese is one of the few chosen ones, which science has researched relatively most thoroughly.
Emmental cheese making developed thanks to favorable natural conditions, which is its strong foundation. Nature gave a moderate climate, an abundance of rainfall during the growing season of forage crops, lush swarm of meadows and pastures, composed of sweet, aromatic grasses. She gave a lot of sunshine and clean air, permeable clay to soil having a sufficient amount of lime, which has a positive effect on the appropriate chemical composition of the feed and, to some extent, on the chemical composition of the milk.
Nutrition of cattle and keeping the barns in order are regulated by generally applicable regulations, which the host dutifully observes, for centuries used to producing healthy milk in his own interest.
Each cowshed is constantly monitored by supervisors, which the hosts and the cheese maker themselves choose from among local milk suppliers. The inspection concerns the order in the cowshed, cattle health and diet.
In the feeding of dairy cattle there is a tendency to preserve natural conditions, and avoiding artificial ones. The cow is treated there as an organism sensitive to deficiencies in the way of feeding and handling it.
In summer, with any milk yield, a sufficient amount of green fodder is sufficient, composed of a variety of sweet grasses, overgrown with clover. If you can, free pasture residence applies. The addition of concentrated feed during this time is prohibited.
In winter, hay is the primary forage. Live weight cow 600 kg and daily milk yield 10 liters receives the least 15 kg of fine hay, while the rest is supplemented with beetroot, freshly cooked potatoes and at most 1 kg of dry mixed concentrated feed. Higher milk yield cows receive slightly more hay and succulent forage, but no more concentrated feed. Any deteriorated items are forbidden, fermented or heated feed.
In such conditions, cheese milk is created and it must be so, because Emmental cheese is very sensitive to even slight nutritional defects. The technical side of making Emmental cheese, as long as there is adequate milk, it is easy to follow. Therefore, usually due to the lack of adequate milk, imitation does not hinder the way it is made.
Cheese processing plants 2500 do 3000 liters per day are the most, and rarely there are cheese dairies with a processing over 4000 liters per day, because then you have to collect milk over a larger area and transport it from longer distances, which is not good for the Emmental cheese layer. It requires the immediate delivery of milk immediately after milking and cannot stand long journeys.
The smallest still useful amount of milk is considered to be 5OO kg, which corresponds to a cheese weight of approx 45 kg. However, such small cheeses are rare. The normal weight of the cheeses to be exported is 80 do 120 kg, which corresponds 900 do 1400 kg of processed milk. This lower bound is a must, because cheeses that are too small are not fermented properly, in particular, sufficiently nice meshes are not produced. The cheese circles have 10 do 15 cm high on a diameter equal to 60 do 100 cm.
In Switzerland it is forbidden to strain the milk on the farm, for this purpose, so that the cheese maker can recognize the occurrences of udder diseases that have such a great impact on the chemical composition of milk after the residue on the sieve, its clotting ability, and finally to assess the degree of cleanliness observed during milking.
You only milk there twice a day. Uncooled milk is provided during the cool season, which is not harmful, because the cheese house is close. In hot weather, however, cooling is recommended in the simplest way, i.e.. The open can with milk is placed in cold running water. It is enough to cool down to 20 ° C and next fast delivery. Coolers are not used with such small amounts of milk, because decontamination of them is too burdensome.
Under these simple conditions, pure milk is obtained, healthy, aseptically milked with a content usually well below 100 000 bacteria in 1 m3.
Previously, there was a mention of the modest equipment of Emmental cheeses due to the processing of a small amount of milk.
It's just that, what is needed and expedient in a cheese plant, settles saving, bill and profitability. There is no disruptive innovation here, but rational consideration of development needs.
Maturation of milk. The milk intended for the processing into Emmental cheese should be sufficiently mature beforehand, which is achieved by placing them in a stand under appropriate conditions. With one-time conversion, it can be used as a stand in the evening milking, in the case of double milking, also part of the wounded milking. The most suitable mixture of milk from the stand is considered 1/4 boiler contents. Sometimes, however, it necessarily amounts to 50%, then you have to be careful about it, for acidification to occur.
The under-floor rooms should be cool and airy in the summer, warmer in winter. Usually adequate maturity is achieved, when the milk poured into the bowls at 25 ° C slowly cools down after 10 hours to 10-12 ° C. In other words, the lactic acid bacteria first have enough time to grow at a temperature that is favorable to them, and when the incubation period is over, Their further reproduction is inhibited by too low temperature. Therefore, the most mistakes are made in selecting the appropriate temperature according to the degree of infection, especially in winter, when the milk becomes cold quickly, as a result of which lactic acid bacteria will not develop (probably unwanted psychrophiles instead). In summer, it is good to pour milk that has been cooled to 15 ° C into the bowls, if it is prone to sour quickly.