Renneting milk – soft cheeses.
The milk is seasoned with commercial rennet extract, usually at 28 ° C, but ranging from 26 up to 30 ° C depending on the season, the acidity of the milk, fat content etc.. Firm, a solid as if hepatic clot should be obtained after two at the earliest, and after four hours at the latest. Currently, always in a hurry, industrial cheese mills use a solidification period lasting only 40 do 45 minutes.
Before renneting the milk, are added to it 2 do 3 g colors on 100 kg, preferably saffron or suitable orelate. Ripe cheese should turn golden the color of oat straw.
Usually, the whole amount of milk is not renneted all at once, but in stages, as is practiced in many French cheese dairies. If it stops at two steps, this is the first time to get around 2/3 the milk supply, and the rest after filling the molds with the first curd. It is not without benefits. If only one fill was enough, then the forms would have to be long, inconvenient to turn and wash, and if poured from above, the curd would break into fine dust, what should be avoided. Again, molds assembled from parts are not practical in use, considering, that folding many thousands of forms, even if the individual parts do not bend and connect easily, it would take a lot of time and a lot of laborers. This is what is avoided, seasoning the milk in batches from time to time. When one batch is poured into molds, the second one is waiting, etc.. At the same time, the cheeses are dripping, they shrink and create a new space for adding a fresh, ready-made curd. One, anyway, there is little difficulty there, that all curds must have the same color and cohesiveness, otherwise the cheese would consist of different non-uniform layers. Chilling the curd dripping in the forms weakens the precise bonding of the individual layers.
It is most convenient to season rennet milk in several to several dozen portable vessels at once, so that each worker can fill the molds anywhere and move the curdled vessels along the tables. In France, conical jars with a capacity are used for this purpose 120 do 150 l, transported on carts.
Formation. Whether the milk has solidified sufficiently, you can recognize the handprint. A properly prepared clot does not stick to it, and the print is slowly poured over with whey. If too much cream had accumulated on the surface, it should be collected at this time, when the milk coagulates a little. If the cream got into the cheese, it would form a non-uniform, poorly sticky layer, which could cause the cheese discs to split. The collected cream is processed into butter.
Forms made of strong, whitewashed iron sheet or thick seamless aluminum, are in the form of a cylinder open at both ends, whose diameter and height are 10 do 11,5 cm. The mold dimension on demi-camembert is 9 cm in diameter at 11 cm in height. Not too densely arranged small holes facilitate the drainage of the whey. Their diameter should not be greater than 2 mm, because the larger and densely arranged ones stick to the inside of the curd and make it difficult to turn the cheeses. The forms are placed on long tables slightly inclined towards their length and width, which facilitates the rapid drainage of the whey.
Mobile tables in the form of wide shelves based on the arms of a single-arm post along the walls are practical, and a two-armed one in the middle of the room. Under the mold, mats made of wooden sticks are spread (clayon).
Before each use, wipe the mats with a soft brush, scald and rinse with warm water, making, that the cheeses don't stick to them. Whey flows comfortably on such braids and the cheeses smooth out perfectly on the flat sheets. The curd as small as possible is poured into ladle molds of the same diameter as they are. Usually four portions are enough for the first fill. The second and subsequent completion occurs after 1 do 2 hours, which depends on how many batches the milk was renneted in. The filling of the molds takes approx 4 hours. During this time, due to spontaneous contraction, assisted by high ambient temperature (18 do 22°C) cheeses give off whey in abundance, fall and take shape slowly. Since they concentrate, sheet metal discs are placed on top of them, which prevent the formation of a funnel-shaped concave on the top plate. The discs are lightly pressed from time to time, that they always touch the cheese.