Ser Livarot - Lisieux (France)
Livarot, also called lisieux, it is made in Normandy, mainly in the Orne and Calvados departments, and mostly on peasant farms. They make it from harvested milk. Although it is a soft cheese, it matures slowly and is very durable. It can be considered one of the best soft cheeses, made in summer, when the production of fatty soft cheeses poses many difficulties. The autumn lvarot is considered the best, maybe that's why, that moderately low temperature has a positive effect on the course of puberty and protects against many disorders.
Usually, completely or partially harvested milk is used there, with an admixture of whole milk in the ratio 2 do 3 parts collected on 1 part of the full.
A little paint is added to the milk (1 do 2 g) on 100 kg and rennet at the temperature of 32 do 35°C. The clotting period lasts 1½ to 2 hours, and an average of 1½ hours. When after this time a very firm curd is obtained, which is also required for camembert, it is first cut with a saber, and when turned, into pieces about the size of a walnut with a lyre or harp, then it inverts the contents of the pan and leaves about 5 minutes. Then the slices are poured into a square wooden frame, placed on a table and lined with a sufficiently large cheesecloth. There is so much to choose from, how much will it fit in the frame. When the whey drains quickly here, it is necessary to hastily grind the cheese mass until the size of a wheat grain is obtained, if these fine particles can be called grain in this case. Rather, it is a fineness made quickly. This method of drying the slurry is not a gentle one, but in this case it leads to the goal. It is about quickly removing the whey from soft and delicate material, from which cheese is to be made, which is like a bridge between hard and soft.
The thus dried slip is applied with a bucket to punched forms with a diameter 15 cm and of the same height. The preparation of the pellets and the filling of the molds must be efficient, because the cheese mass quickly hardens and becomes more difficult to stick and smooth. The forms rest on wooden mats, which completely smooth flat cheeses. After a dozen or so minutes, the cheeses are turned over together with the molds, and further inversion is repeated frequently and at short intervals, at least 8 do 10 times on the first day until evening. The ambient temperature should be the lowest 18 do 20°C, that the cheese binds properly and the whey drains off. Moreover, such heat is necessary because of the rapid course of the initial lactic acid fermentation. The next day the cheeses are turned over several times, the third - he takes them out of their molds. Then they are ready to be salted.
The cheeses are only salt on the entire surface once and then dry, fine salt. The rubbed layer of salt must therefore be quite abundant. It is more convenient to salt twice a little. The salted cheeses remain in the cheese dairy through 2 do 4 days. This has a positive effect on the transformation of the rest of the milk sugar and the dripping of the cheeses. It is a kind of sparing use of alkaline salts and a gentle approach to the nature of hard cheeses.
The cheese prepared in this way is sold to the owners of the cellars (wine merchant), who sort them and properly care for them until they are fully mature. Cheese rooms with appropriate rooms take care of them at home.
After salting, the cheeses enter the drying room, where they are placed on wooden lesions, which are also used in the production of camembert. The cheeses remain in the dryer 15 do 30 days with 12 do 15°C. In our climate, drying chambers would be superfluous, they will be replaced by preserving stores 80 do 85% humidity. This is where the goo is produced, which should be cherished as on Limburgish cheeses. After this time has elapsed, the cheeses are moved to a wetter store that keeps approx 90% humidity. The ripening temperature should be below 15 ° C. After a 10-day stay in the cellar, the sides of the cheeses are girdled 5 up to 6 times with ribbons of torn leaves of croissants (typha latifolia) For this purpose, so that they do not lose their shape, when they start to soften as they mature.
Livarot cheeses reach the appropriate maturity after that 3 do 6, smaller after 3 do 4 months. The goo is scraped off the cheeses before shipment, colors them yellow with orelan, it is arranged in rollers and wrapped together.
Good livarot cheese has a yellowish flesh, flexible, no mesh. The taste is full, spicy, but not sharp.
That 100 kg of milk with a fat content above 4% is obtained 5 kg of butter and 4 do 5 kg of mature cheese.
Lisieux i St. Hubert differs from livarot by having a higher fat content and a smaller shape. Na St. Hubert uses a diameter mold 9 cm and of the same height.